I'm hardly an expert on epidemiology, but it sounds like you're talking about how vaccines can be counterproductive because they can create superbugs, or viruses that are highly resistant to antibodies. So this would be a case of short-lived progress, progress that eventually makes matters much worse like capitalistic consumerism and the trashing of the world's ecosystems. Mind you, articles like the ones linked below suggest this worry is overblown.
But if you're suggesting we should stop using vaccines or preventative measures against these kinds of illnesses, because we're only making matters worse in the long run, you'd have to deal with the much greater tolls that occurred before the use of vaccines (as someone like Steven Pinker would be quick to point out).
Now, I agree that a case can be made against what we call technological and secular progress in general. I've made that case with respect to environmentalism (third link below). Whether that holds in the specific area of these vaccines, masks, and viruses is up the science. I don't have a strong opinion on it one way or the other, in part because I already accept there's a great chance our overall "progress" will be short-lived. That's what the science behind global warming, overpopulation, and the automation of labour already indicates.
I don't think it adds much to say this kind of skeptical argument is "conservative." It seems to arise much more out of paranoia and conspiratorial thinking, like I said.