Existentialism and spirituality may both presuppose at least property dualism (spirituality requires the stronger, Cartesian or substance kind), but dualism is only a metaphysical thesis without the normative implications. Existentialism is more specific than just dualism, since dualism is the claim that the self is a special, anomalous configuration of matter, giving us intelligence, awareness, creativity, and freedom. Existentialism is more about what we should do in light of the absurdity involved in the conflict that follows from dualism, the conflict between mind and mindless world.

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